The plan for this museum was initiated by the Madras Literary Society in 1846 AD and it was established on January 01, 1951 with Dr. Edward Balfour as the First Officer in charge. This is the second oldest museum, next to Kolkatta. This is a multi-purpose State Government Museum located in Egmore, spread in an area of 16.25 acres of land. Six independent buildings has 46 galleries. It is rich in archaeological, numismatic and largest Roman collections too. Bhudhist Ruins from Amaravathi finds a prominent place here.